Thermal Physics


Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with the study of heat, temperature, and energy and their relationship with physical systems. At a high-school level, thermodynamics can be summarized as follows:

  • Physical quantities: In thermodynamics, important physical quantities include temperature, heat, and internal energy, which are all related to each other and can be transferred from one system to another.
  • First Law of Thermodynamics: This law states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only transferred or converted from one form to another. It is also known as the law of energy conservation.
  • Second Law of Thermodynamics: This law states that in any energy transfer or transformation, some energy will inevitably be lost as unusable waste heat.
  • Heat engines: Heat engines are devices that convert heat into work, such as steam engines, internal combustion engines, and refrigerators. They are subject to the limitations of the second law of thermodynamics.
  • Entropy: Entropy is a measure of the amount of thermal energy unavailable for use in a physical system. It increases as a system moves towards thermal equilibrium.

In conclusion, thermodynamics is an important area of physics that helps us understand the behavior of heat, temperature, and energy and how they are related to physical systems.